Fighting On All Fronts: Popular resistance in the Second World War

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Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online Fighting On All Fronts: Popular resistance in the Second World War file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with Fighting On All Fronts: Popular resistance in the Second World War book. Happy reading Fighting On All Fronts: Popular resistance in the Second World War Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF Fighting On All Fronts: Popular resistance in the Second World War at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF Fighting On All Fronts: Popular resistance in the Second World War Pocket Guide. Prior to the Soviet counteroffensive at Stalingrad, the Antonescu government considered a war with Hungary over Transylvania an inevitability after the expected victory over the Soviet Union. Throughout the Antonescu years, Romania supplied Nazi Germany and the Axis armies with oil, grain, and industrial products.

Consequently, by Romania became a target of Allied aerial bombardment. Bucharest was subjected to intense Allied bombardment on 4 and 15 April , and the Luftwaffe itself bombed the city on 24 and 25 August after the country switched sides. In February , with the decisive Soviet counteroffensive at Stalingrad, it was growing clear that the tide of the war was turning against the Axis powers.

By , the Romanian economy was in tatters because of the expenses of the war, and destructive Allied air bombing throughout Romania , including the capital, Bucharest. In addition, most of the products sent to Germany — such as oil, grain, and equipment — were provided without monetary compensation, as Germany refused to pay. As a result of these uncompensated exports, inflation in Romania skyrocketed.

This caused widespread discontent among the Romanian population, even among those who had once enthusiastically supported the Germans and the war, and an angry relationship between Romania and Germany. The Jassy—Kishinev Offensive , launched on 20 August , resulted in a quick and decisive Soviet breakthrough, collapsing the German-Romanian front in the region. According to an international commission report released by the Romanian government in , between , and , Jews were murdered or died in various forms on Romanian soil, in the war zones of Bessarabia , Bukovina , and in the occupied Soviet territories under Romanian's control Transnistria Governorate.

Of the 25, Romani deported, who were deported to concentration camps in Transnistria, 11, died. Though much of the killing was committed in the war zone by Romanian and German troops, there were also substantial persecutions behind the front line. Half of the estimated , to , Jews living in Bessarabia, Bukovina, and Dorohoi County in Romania were murdered or died between June and the spring of , of which between 45, and 60, Jews were killed in Bessarabia and Bukovina by Romanian and German troops, within months of the entry of the country into the war during Even after the initial killings, Jews in Moldavia , Bukovina and Bessarabia were subject to frequent pogroms , and were concentrated into ghettos from which they were sent to Transnistria, including camps built and run by the Romanian authorities.

Romanian soldiers and gendarmes also worked with the Einsatzkommandos , German killing squads, tasked with massacring Jews and Roma in conquered territories, the local Ukrainian militia, and the SS squads of local Ukrainian Germans Sonderkommando Russland and Selbstschutz. Romanian troops were in large part responsible for the Odessa massacre , in which from October 18, , until mid-March , Romanian soldiers in Odessa, aided by gendarmes and police, killed up to 25, Jews and deported more than 35, The number of deaths in all areas is not certain, but the lowest respectable estimates run to about , Jews and 11, Romani in these eastern regions.

Nonetheless, most Jews living within the pre-Barbarossa borders survived the war, although they were subject to a wide range of harsh conditions, including forced labor, financial penalties, and discriminatory laws. Jewish property was nationalized. The report commissioned and accepted by the Romanian government in on the Holocaust concluded: [10].

Of all the allies of Nazi Germany, Romania bears responsibility for the deaths of more Jews than any country other than Germany itself. The murders committed in Iasi , Odessa , Bogdanovka , Domanovka, and Peciora, for example, were among the most hideous murders committed against Jews anywhere during the Holocaust. Romania committed genocide against the Jews. The survival of Jews in some parts of the country does not alter this reality. On 23 August , with the Red Army penetrating German defenses during the Jassy—Kishinev Offensive , King Michael I of Romania led a successful coup against the Axis with support from opposition politicians and most of the army.

Michael I, who was initially considered to be not much more than a figurehead, was able to successfully depose the Antonescu dictatorship. The King then offered a non-confrontational retreat to German ambassador Manfred von Killinger. But the Germans considered the coup "reversible" and attempted to turn the situation around by military force. The Romanian First , Second forming , and what little was left of the Third and the Fourth Armies one corps were under orders from the King to defend Romania against any German attacks.

King Michael offered to put the Romanian Army, which at that point had a strength of nearly 1,, men, [11] on the side of the Allies. Surprisingly, with the Red Army occupying parts of Romania, Stalin immediately recognized the king and the restoration of the conservative Romanian monarchy. This resulted in a split of the country between those who still supported Germany and its armies and those who supported the new government, the latter often forming partisan groups and gradually gaining the most support.

To the Germans the situation was very precarious as Romanian units had been integrated in the Axis defensive lines: not knowing which units were still loyal to the Axis cause and which ones joined the Soviets or discontinued fighting altogether, defensive lines could suddenly collapse. In a radio broadcast to the Romanian nation and army on the night of 23 August King Michael issued a cease-fire, [13] proclaimed Romania's loyalty to the Allies, announced the acceptance of an armistice to be signed on September 12 [14] offered by Great Britain , the United States , and the USSR , and declared war on Germany.

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The armistice was signed three weeks later on 12 September , on terms virtually dictated by the Soviet Union. The Armistice Agreement of 12 September stipulated in Article 18 that " An Allied Control Commission will be established which will undertake until the conclusion of peace the regulation of and control over the execution of the present terms under the general direction and orders of the Allied Soviet High Command, acting on behalf of the Allied Powers.

The Annex to Article 18 made clear that " The Romanian Government and their organs shall fulfil all instructions of the Allied Control Commission arising out of the Armistice Agreement. In line with Article 14 of the Armistice Agreement, two Romanian People's Tribunals were set up to try suspected war criminals. As the country declared war on Germany on the night of 23 August , border clashes between Hungarian and Romanian troops erupted almost immediately.

On 24 August, German troops attempted to seize Bucharest and suppress Michael's coup, but were repelled by the city's defenses, which received some support from the United States Air Force. The Romanian Army captured over 50, German prisoners around this time, who were later surrendered to the Soviets. Their main objective was Cluj Cluj-Napoca , a city regarded as the historical capital of Transylvania. However, the Second Hungarian Army was present in the region, and together with the Eighth German Army engaged the Allied forces on 5 September in what was to become the Battle of Turda , which lasted until 8 October and resulted in heavy casualties for both sides.

The Romanian Army incurred heavy casualties fighting Nazi Germany. Of some , Romanian soldiers who fought against the Axis in —45, some , were killed, wounded or went missing. Under the Treaty of Paris , [27] the Allies did not acknowledge Romania as a co-belligerent nation but instead applied the term "ally of Hitlerite Germany" to all recipients of the treaty's stipulations. However, the treaty specifically recognized that Romania switched sides on 24 August , and therefore "acted in the interests of all the United Nations".

As a reward, Northern Transylvania was, once again, recognized as an integral part of Romania, but the border with the USSR was fixed at its state on January , restoring the pre-Barbarossa status quo with one exception. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in , the Eastern territories became part of Ukraine and the Republic of Moldova. In Romania proper, Soviet occupation following World War II facilitated the rise of the Communist Party as the main political force, leading ultimately to the forced abdication of the King and the establishment of a single-party people's republic in This is a list of battles and other combat operations in World War II in which Romanian forces took part.

The list below comprises the models and numbers of Romanian Army tanks of all types in service as of 19 July [61]. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of a series on the. Middle Ages Early. Early Modern Times. National Awakening. Kingdom of Romania. Socialist Republic of Romania. Soviet occupation Revolution. Romania since By topic. Romanian language Historical timeline Military history Christianity.

By historical region. Romanian military actions in World War II. Battle of Romania Main article: King Michael's Coup. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. January This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. The Origins of the Second World War Area handbook for Romania; Library of Congress. Federal Research Division The Library of Congress. Washington, D. Retrieved Archived from the original on Tarnstrom, Trogen Books, , Balkan Battles , p.

Links to related articles. World War II. Africa Asia Europe. Bibliography Category Index Portal. Outline Index. History of World War II by region and country. Hidden categories: CS1 maint: extra text: authors list CS1 maint: archived copy as title Articles with Romanian-language external links Webarchive template wayback links All pages needing factual verification Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from October All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from May Articles to be expanded from January All articles to be expanded Articles using small message boxes Articles with unsourced statements from December Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the Library of Congress Country Studies Commons category link is on Wikidata.

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Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. So he halted the Soviet offensive and gave the Germans free rein to suppress it. During the ensuing 63 days, , Poles of the Home Army surrendered to the Germans. After the Germans forced all the surviving population to leave the city, Hitler ordered that any buildings left standing be dynamited — 98 percent of the buildings in Warsaw were destroyed. During the invasion of the Soviet Union in the early months of the war, rapid German advances almost captured the cities of Moscow and Leningrad.

The bulk of Soviet industry which could not be evacuated was either destroyed or lost due to German occupation. Agricultural production was interrupted, with grain crops left standing in the fields. This caused hunger reminiscent of the early s. In one of the greatest feats of war logistics, factories were evacuated on an enormous scale, with 1, factories dismantled and shipped eastwards along four principal routes to the Caucasus , Central Asia , the Ural , and Siberia. The whole of the Soviet Union become dedicated to the war effort.

The people of the Soviet Union were probably better prepared than any other nation involved in World War II to endure the material hardships of the war — primarily because they were so used to shortages and economic crisis in the past, especially during wartime—World War I had brought similar restrictions on food. In Leningrad, under German siege, over a million people died of starvation and disease.

Many factory workers were teenagers, women and old people. The government implemented rationing in and first applied it to bread, flour, cereal, pasta, butter, margarine, vegetable oil, meat, fish, sugar and confectionery all across the country. The rations remained largely stable in other places [ clarification needed ] during the war.

Off-ration food was often so expensive that it could not add substantially to a citizen's food supply unless they were especially well-paid. Peasants received no rations and had to make do with any local resources they farmed themselves. Most rural peasants struggled and lived in unbearable poverty, but others sold their surplus food at a high price; a few became rouble millionaires, until a currency reform two years after the end of the war wiped out their wealth.

Despite harsh conditions, the war led to a spike in Soviet nationalism and unity.

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Soviet propaganda toned down extreme Communist rhetoric of the past as the people now rallied to protect their Motherland against the evils of the German invaders. Ethnic minorities thought to be collaborators were forced into exile. Religion, which was previously shunned, became a part of a Communist Party propaganda campaign to mobilize religious people.

Soviet society changed drastically during the war. There was a burst of marriages in June and July between people about to be separated by the war, and in the next few years the marriage rate dropped off steeply, with the birth rate following shortly thereafter to only about half of what it would have been in peacetime. For this reason mothers with several children during the war received substantial honors and money benefits if they had several children—mothers could earn around 1, rubles for having their fourth child and up to 5, rubles for their tenth.

Hunger, malnutrition, disease, starvation, and even cannibalism became common during the siege, which lasted from September until January Many people lost weight, and grew weaker and more vulnerable to disease. If malnutrition persisted for long enough, its effects were irreversible. People's feelings of loyalty disappeared if they got hungry enough; they would steal from their closest family members in order to survive.

Only some of the citizens of Leningrad survived. Only , were evacuated before the siege began; this left 2. Subsequently, more managed to escape; especially when the nearby Lake Ladoga froze over and people could walk over the ice road—or "road of life"—to safety. Some factory owners even looted state funds to secure transport out of the city during the first summer of the war. Most survival strategies during the siege, though, involved staying within the city and facing the problems through resourcefulness or luck: for instance by securing factory employment, because many factories became autonomous and possessed more of the requirements for survival during the winter, such as food and heat.

Workers received larger rations than other civilians, and factories were likely to have electricity if they produced vital goods. Factories also served as mutual support centers, and had clinics and other services like cleaning crews and teams of women who would sew and repair clothes. Factory employees were still driven to desperation on occasion and people resorted to eating glue or horsemeat in factories where food was scarce, but factory employment was the most consistently successful method of survival, and at some food production plants not a single person died.

Survival opportunities open to the wider Soviet community included barter and farming on private land. Black markets thrived as private barter and trade became more common, especially between soldiers and civilians. Soldiers, who had more food to spare, were eager to trade with civilians who had extra warm clothes to exchange. Planting vegetable gardens in the spring became popular, primarily because citizens could keep everything grown on their own plots.

The campaign also had a potent psychological effect and boosted morale, a survival component almost as crucial as bread. Many of the most desperate Soviet citizens turned to crime to support themselves. Most common was the theft of food and of ration cards; this could prove fatal for a malnourished person if their card was stolen more than a day or two before a new card was issued. For these reasons, the stealing of food was severely punished and a person could be shot for as little as stealing a loaf of bread.

More serious crimes such as murder and cannibalism also occurred, and special police squads were set up to combat these crimes, though by the end of the siege, roughly 1, had been arrested for cannibalism. In the United States, farming and other production was increased. For example, citizens were encouraged to plant "victory gardens", personal farms that children sometimes worked on.

The Philippines was an American possession on the way to independence scheduled in and controlled its own internal affairs. The Japanese invaded and quickly conquered the islands in early The Japanese military authorities immediately began organizing a new government structure in the Philippines and established the Philippine Executive Commission. They initially organized a Council of State , through which they directed civil affairs until October , when they declared the Philippines an independent republic. Laurel proved to be ineffective and unpopular as Japan maintained very tight controls.

Japanese occupation of the Philippines was opposed by large-scale underground and guerrilla activity. The Philippine Army , as well as remnants of the U. Army Forces Far East continued to fight the Japanese in a guerrilla war. They formed an auxiliary unit of the United States Army. Their effectiveness was such that by the end of the war, Japan controlled only twelve of the forty-eight provinces. One element of resistance in the Central Luzon area was furnished by the Hukbalahap , which armed some 30, people and extended their control over much of Luzon.

As in most occupied countries, crime, looting, corruption, and black markets were endemic. For example, Japan had a surplus of sugar from Taiwan, and a severe shortage of cotton, so they try to grow cotton on sugar lands with disastrous results.

They lacked the seeds, pesticides, and technical skills to grow cotton. Jobless farm workers flock to the cities, where there was minimal relief and few jobs. The Japanese Army also tried using cane sugar for fuel, castor beans and copra for oil, derris for quinine, cotton for uniforms, and abaca hemp for rope. The plans were very difficult to implement in the face of limited skills, collapsed international markets, bad weather, and transportation shortages. The program was a failure that gave very little help to Japanese industry, and diverted resources needed for food production.

Living conditions were bad throughout the Philippines during the war. Transportation between the islands was difficult because of lack of fuel. Food was in very short supply, with sporadic famines and epidemic diseases [48] [49]. The Japanese tried to remove all Western and American cultural influences. They met fierce resistance when they tried to undermine the Catholic Church by arresting Christian missionaries. The Filipinos came to feel morally superior to the brutal Japanese and rejected their advances. The Japanese tried to reshape schools and impose the Japanese language.

They formed neighborhood associations to inform on the opposition. Britain's total mobilisation during this period proved to be successful in winning the war, by maintaining strong support from public opinion. The war was a "people's war" that enlarged democratic aspirations and produced promises of a postwar welfare state. It lost aircraft in France [ when?

The government decided to concentrate on only five types of aircraft in order to optimise output. These aircraft received extraordinary priority, which covered the supply of materials and equipment and even made it possible to divert from other types the necessary parts, equipment, materials and manufacturing resources.

Labour was moved from other aircraft work to factories engaged on the specified types. Cost was no object. The delivery of new fighters rose from in April to in September—more than enough to cover the losses—and Fighter Command emerged triumphantly from the Battle of Britain in October with more aircraft than it had possessed at the beginning.

Food, clothing, petrol, leather and other items were rationed. Perishable items such as fruit were not rationed. Access to luxuries was severely restricted, although there was also a significant black market. Families also grew " victory gardens ", and small home vegetable gardens.

Many goods were conserved to turn into weapons later, such as fat for nitroglycerin production. People in the countryside were less affected by rationing as they had greater access to locally sourced unrationed products than people in cities, and were more able to grow their own. The rationing system, which was originally based on a specific basket of goods for each consumer, was much improved by switching to a points system which allowed housewives to make choices based on their own priorities.

Food rationing also permitted the upgrading of the quality of the food available, and housewives approved—except for the absence of white bread and the government's imposition of an unpalatable wheat meal " national loaf ". Surveys of public opinion showed that most Britons were pleased that rationing brought equality and a guarantee of a decent meal at an affordable cost. From very early in the war, it was thought that the major industrial cities of Britain, especially London, would come under Luftwaffe air attack; this did happen in The Blitz. Some children were sent to Canada, the USA and Australia, and millions of children and some mothers were evacuated from London and other major cities to safer parts of the country when the war began, under government plans for the evacuation of civilians , but they often filtered back.

When the Blitz bombing began on September 6, , they evacuated again. The discovery of the poor health and hygiene of evacuees was a shock to many Britons, and helped prepare the way for the Beveridge Report. Children were evacuated if their parents agreed; but in some cases they had no choice. The children were only allowed to take a few things with them, including a gas mask, books, money, clothes, ration book and some small toys.

An Emergency Hospital Service was established at the beginning of the war, in the expectation that it would be required to deal with large numbers of casualties. A common theme called for an expansion of the welfare state as a reward to the people for their wartime sacrifices. It recommended that the various forms of assistance that had grown up piecemeal since be rationalised. Unemployment benefits and sickness benefits were to be universal.

There would be new benefits for maternity. The old-age pension system would be revised and expanded, and require that a person retired. A full-scale National Health Service would provide free medical care for everyone. All the major political parties endorsed the principles, and they were largely put into effect when peace returned. The themes of equality and sacrifice were dominant during the war, and in the memory of the war. Historian Jose Harris points out that the war was seen at the time and by a generation of writers as a period of outstanding national unity and social solidarity.

There was little antiwar sentiment during or after the war.

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Furthermore, Britain turned more toward the collective welfare state during the war, expanding it in the late s and reaching a broad consensus supporting it across party lines. By the s and s, however, historians were exploring the subtle elements of continuing diversity and conflict in society during the war period. Later historians pointed to the many localised unofficial strikes, especially in coal mining, shipbuilding, the metal trades and engineering, with as many as 3.

The BBC collected 47, wartime recollections and 15, images in and put them online. Canada joined the war effort on September 10, ; the government deliberately waited after Britain's decision to go to war, partly to demonstrate its independence from Britain and partly to give the country extra time to import arms from the United States as a non-belligerent. Unemployment faded away. Canada became one of the largest trainers of pilots for the Allies through the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan.

Many Canadian men joined the war effort, so with them overseas and industries pushing to increase production, women took up positions to aid in the war effort. The hiring of men in many positions in civilian employment was effectively banned later in the war through measures taken under the National Resources Mobilization Act.. Shipyards and repair facilities expanded dramatically as over a thousand warships and cargo vessels were built, along with thousands of auxiliary craft, small boats and others.

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Canada expanded food production, but shipped so much to Britain that food rationing had to be imposed. The main goal was to integrate the marginalized European ethnicities—in contrast to the First World War policy of internment camps for Ukrainians and Germans. In the case of Germany, Italy and especially Japan, the government watched minorities closely for signs of loyalty to their homelands.

The fears proved groundless. Most went to the Toronto area. Canadian women responded to urgent appeals to make do, recycle and salvage in order to come up with needed supplies. They saved fats and grease; gathered recycled goods; handed out information on the best ways to get the most out of recycled goods; and organized many other events to decrease the amount of waste. Volunteer organizations led by women also prepared packages for the military overseas and for prisoners of war in Axis countries.

With World War II came a dire need for employees in the workplace. Without women to step in, the economy would have collapsed.

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By autumn there were twice as many women working full-time in Canada's paid labour force as in between 1. The government greatly expanded its powers in order to better direct the war effort, and Australia's industrial and human resources were focused on supporting the Australian and American armed forces. There were a few Japanese attacks, most notably on Darwin in February , along with the widespread fear in , that Australia would be invaded.

Australia entered the war in and sent its forces to fight the Germans in the Middle East where they were successful and Singapore where they were captured by the Japanese in The Curtin Labor Government took over in October , and energised the war effort, with rationing of scarce fuel, clothing and some food. When Japan entered the war in December , the danger was at hand, and all women and children were evacuated from Darwin and northern Australia. The Commonwealth Government took control of all income taxation in , which gave it extensive new powers and greatly reduced the states' financial autonomy.

Manufacturing grew rapidly, with the assembly of high performance guns and aircraft a specialty. The number of women working in factories rose from , to , New Zealand, with a population of 1. The Labour party was in power and promoted unionisation and the welfare state. The armed forces peaked at , in September ; , served abroad, and 10, died.

Agriculture expanded, sending record supplies of meat, butter and wool to Britain. When American forces arrived, they were fed as well. Montgomerie shows that the war dramatically increased the roles of women, especially married women, in the labour force. Most of them took traditional female jobs. Some replaced men but the changes here were temporary and reversed in After the war, women left traditional male occupations and many women gave up paid employment to return home.

There was no radical change in gender roles but the war intensified occupational trends under way since the s. Britain declared war on behalf of India without consulting with Indian leaders. The British recruited some 2. India became the main base for British operations against Japan, and for American efforts to support China.

In Bengal, with an elected Muslim local government under British supervision, the cutoff of rice imports from Burma led to severe food shortages, made worse by maladministration. Prices soared and millions starved because they could not buy food. In the Bengal famine of , three million people died.

It was under Japanese army control and performed poorly in combat. In postwar Indian politics, some Indians called them heroes [ citation needed ]. The Congress Party in demanded immediate independence, which Britain rejected. Congress then demanded the British immediately " Quit India " in August , but the Raj responded by immediately jailing tens of thousands of national, state and regional leaders; knocking Congress out of the war.

Meanwhile, the Muslim League supported the war effort and gained prestige and membership, as well as British support for its demands for a separate Muslim state which became Pakistan in Hong Kong was a British colony captured by Japan on December 25, , after 18 days of fierce fighting. The conquest was swift, but was followed by days of large-scale looting; over ten thousand Chinese women were raped or gang-raped by the Japanese soldiers. The Japanese imprisoned the ruling British colonial elite and sought to win over the local merchant gentry by appointments to advisory councils and neighbourhood watch groups.

The policy worked well for Japan and produced extensive collaboration from both the elite and the middle class, with far less terror than in other Chinese cities. Hong Kong was transformed into a Japanese colony, with Japanese businesses replacing the British. The Japanese Empire had severe logistical difficulties and by the food supply for Hong Kong was problematic. The overlords became more brutal and corrupt, and the Chinese gentry became disenchanted.

With the surrender of Japan the transition back to British rule was smooth, for on the mainland the Nationalist and Communists forces were preparing for a civil war and ignored Hong Kong. In the long run the occupation strengthened the pre-war social and economic order among the Chinese business community by eliminating some conflicts of interests and reducing the prestige and power of the British. Germany had not fully mobilized in , nor even in Not until , under Albert Speer the minister of armaments in the Reich , did Germany finally redirect its entire economy and manpower to war production.

Instead of using all available Germans, it brought in millions of slave workers from conquered countries , treating them badly and getting low productivity in return. Hitler's strategy was to change this by a series of surprise blitzkriegs. This failed with defeats in Russia in and , and against the economic power of the allies. The Nazis forced 15 million people to work in Germany including POWs ; many died from bad living conditions, mistreatment, malnutrition, and executions. They were especially concentrated in munitions and agriculture. Although Germany had about double the population of Britain 80 million versus 46 million , it had to use far more labor to provide food and energy.

For Germany to build its twelve synthetic oil plants with a capacity of 3.

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Britain imported all its oil from Iraq, Persia and North America. To overcome this problem, Germany employed millions of forced laborers and POWs; by , they had brought in more than five million civilian workers and nearly two million prisoners of war—a total of 7. Rationing in Germany was introduced in immediately upon the outbreak of hostilities.

Hitler was at first convinced that it would affect public support for the war if a strict rationing program was introduced. The Nazis were popular partly because Germany was relatively prosperous, and Hitler did not want to lose popularity or public support. Hitler felt that food and other shortages had been a major factor in destroying civilian morale during World War I, leading to defeatism and surrender.

Despite the rationing, civilians had enough food and clothing; witness Howard K. Smith later wrote that "[f]or a people engaged in a life-and-death war After the German invasion of the Soviet Union in June , however, this changed to g per week, then fell further.

According to a post by Walter Felscher to the "Memories of the s" electronic mailing list :. For every person, there were rationing cards for general foodstuffs, meats, fats such as butter, margarine and oil and tobacco products distributed every other month. The cards were printed on strong paper, containing numerous small "Marken" subdivisions printed with their value — for example, from "5 g Butter" to " g Butter".

Every acquisition of rationed goods required an appropriate "Marken", and if a person wished to eat a certain soup at a restaurant, the waiter would take out a pair of scissors and cut off the required items to make the soup and amounts listed on the menu. In the evenings, restaurant-owners would spend an hour at least gluing the collected "Marken" onto large sheets of paper which they then had to hand in to the appropriate authorities. The rations were enough to live from, but clearly did not permit luxuries.

Whipped cream was unknown from until , as well as chocolates, cakes with rich creams etc. Meat could not be eaten every day. Other items were not rationed, but simply became unavailable as they had to be imported from overseas: coffee in particular, which throughout was replaced by substitutes made from roasted grains. Vegetables and local fruit were not rationed; imported citrus fruits and bananas were unavailable. In more rural areas, farmers continued to bring their products to the markets, as large cities depended on long distance delivery. Many people kept rabbits for their meat when it became scarce in shops, and it was often a child's job to care for them each day.

By spring , food distribution and the ration system were increasingly in collapse, due to insurmountable transportation disruption and the rapid advance of the Allied armies from west and east with consequent loss of food storage facilities. In Berlin, at the start of the Battle of Berlin , the authorities announced a special supplementary food ration on April 20, It consisted of a pound g of bacon or sausage, half a pound of rice, half a pound of peas or pulses, a pound of sugar, four ounces g of coffee substitute, one ounce of real coffee, and a tin of vegetables or fruit.

They also announced that standard food ration allocations for the next fortnight could be claimed in advance. Germany had a very large and well organized nursing service, with three main organizations, one for Catholics, one for Protestants, and the DRK Red Cross. In the Nazis set up their own nursing unit, the Brown nurses, which absorbed one of the smaller groups, bringing it up to 40, members.

It set up kindergartens in competition with the other nursing organizations, hoping to seize control of the minds of the younger Germans. Civilian psychiatric nurses who were Nazi party members participated in the killing of invalids, although this was shrouded in euphemisms and denials. Military nursing was primarily handled by the DRK, which came under partial Nazi control. Frontline medical services were provided by male doctors and medics. Red Cross nurses served widely within the military medical services, staffing the hospitals that perforce were close to the front lines and at risk of bombing attacks.